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End of Field 4 Evaulation

Throughout the course of the field module there were various aspects that I feel went well.  I think the logo design process was one of these elements from Part A. It was the first aspects that we were able to collaboratively work together and with everybody ideas I feel that we created a strong stand out logo. One in particular was the oxymoron task from the protest project, it worked really well with the research and thought process behind it. This specific aspect also pushed me to think about how my skills can be used within a different way instead of just 2D design. 

 I think that the  I learnt a great deal throughout the project including how to work collaboratively because this was something that I haven’t done a huge amount of prior to the module. Working with other graphic students showed me the benefits of working as a team and how ideas develop further. Also, I learnt how soft illustrations can really compliment a design rather than using vectors as something the imagery used graphics can be vector heavy, using softer imagery is something I will consider now in further projects. This was something that I learnt mainly in Part B of the module when we collaborated with Illustration.  

There were elements of the field module that I don’t think went as well as expected including communication during Part A of the module. This communication was vital and it was something that didn’t go as well as we’d hoped which meant that the outcomes weren’t as strong as they could have been. However, this was something that improved in part B of the module. Also, I think that the design task of the manifesto didn’t go as well as planned because as a group there were some mixed signals on what we were aiming to achieve which meant that as a team we didn’t produce the best outcome we could have. Next time I would definitely make sure that communication in the groups was better and that more time was made for the group to be in the studio working together, as I think this is where mistakes were made in final outcomes.

In part A of the module I used my skills to contribute towards creating the imagery for the entire campaign, as I had experience as a photography student I used my skills to create the imagery that would be used. Also, I used my graphic design skills helping to create the logo design but also producing the GIF for the campaign. During Part B I again used my knowledge of graphic design to aid multiple areas of the project but I was also able to put my art skills to use when contributing to the oxymoron task as I created the cardboard structure of the house because my art background is in cardboard sculpture. I feel that I attended and engaged all aspects of the projects and was fully committed to them both. 

The process has helped me to develop as a Graphic Designer as it has given me an insight into what it might possibly be like in industry as more than often a designer will need to work with illustrators who may need to create imagery for a project. It also helped me to develop my creative thinking and design process as through working other graphic designers seeing their process has made me evaluate my own, changing the way that I approach certain briefs and issues that might arise within a project. 

Throughout the module I’ve had to consider audience, tone and communication of the project. This was something that I think changed depending on how the project changed. For example, in part A I think we forgot to think about the audience at times who we were aiming the campaign at,. However, I think that we remembered the platform which we were communicating on. I feel that this improved and that for Part B I personally considered the audience/tone of the project which did evolve during the project. Starting of aiming it at people looking to buy exotic pets but by the end it was simply raising awareness about the harm they are coming to. 


Protest – Placard Outcomes/ Live Protest

The next part of this project was creating the physical placards that would be used in our live protest. For my placard I decided to make it A3, using corrugated cardboard to strengthen the outcome. If I was to do this again I would consider using wood as this would make the placard stronger and easier to hold up when completing the live protest. I think that the 3D element of the claw marks worked really well in representing that idea of trying to escape. Using the scalpel to cut into both the image and cardboard was hard but I think that without this the design would feel to flat. Also, using red paper in the background proved to be the best way as when I tested the red marker on the corrugated cardboard I found that it wasn’t vibrant enough as when it was on paper, therefore, after speaking to the team we thought that using paper would be best.

From feedback that the group receive the use of the word ‘me’ and ‘they’ didn’t give the audience a clear sense of what the protest was about and that we could have related this more to the oxymoron project. If I was to make any adjustments to my placard I would consider the scale, I think that this was an issue as it was difficult to see from a distance, possibly changing it to be A2. Furthermore, I could consider changing the wording the placard so it would say ‘Let exotic animals be wild’ as this would clearly show the audience what the protest was about.


After constructing the placards the final stage of the project was to participate in the live protest that would take place around campus. It gave us the opportunity to bring all our work together to help us see how effective our work would be if it was an actual protest campaign. I think that together our placards work well with a few adjustments that individuals made after relieving feedback. If this was an actual protest I would consider using the artefact, and scaling up to produce a installation piece that would draw the  attention of people to the outcome.

Protest – Placard Development

As a team we spoke about each taking one piece of copywriting and developing placard ideas. I was allocated ‘Let me be wild’  so I was asked to start developing these further using digital means or hand render. Taking the sketch ideas that I started with I thought that I would take them into InDesign and experiment with layout. I kept with the black, white and red colour scheme that we had used previously in the manifesto within this placard design. I wanted to include some subtle illustration to the design so taking the claw mark that I used in my illustration for the oxymoron. The claw mark was something that I had thought about during the initial idea generation for the oxymoron task and I think that it could be used here to make the placard visually stronger. I thought about experimenting with different layout to see which one I found worked stronger with the use of hierarchy and colour.


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Linking back to my previous work from oxymoron task – claw mark on sofa. 

As I felt that the 3D aspect that the oxymoron outcome had was stronger (the use of layers) I thought that it could be interesting to experiment with this idea in the placards, either cutting into the board itself or adding to create the 3D effect. In this idea I thought that the claw mark could be ripped into the placard to give the sense that the animal is trying to break free of being tamed and kept as a pet.

In order to see how this would work further I decided to print it out A3 and use a scalpel to cut the claw marks out of the image. I thought that the placement of the claw marks weren’t too drastic as they still allowed the type to be read. I experimented with adding red paper behind the claw marks as this was something that the group thought might work well in the overall design. I think that the red works well behind it however, I think a dark red could work better, through doing this small experimentation helped me to see if this idea could work when taken forward.

In my sketchbook I decided to further experiment with the idea of layers, I cut out the claw marks and then using a red marker I created the red to go behind. This highlighted that the darker red works better as a contrast against the white type and black background. I think that the placard would befitted from multiple layers to make the claw marks look as if they were deeper to further emphasis the idea that the animal could be dangerous as it belongs in the wild. As I am considering using corrugated cardboard to construct this placard I will be able to cut into this and using paint or marker to make the inside of the mark red.

Protest – Developing Stanley Green Style Placard

The brief stated that we needed to have one placard inspired/ in the style of Stanley Green. We started as a group by looking at the placards that Green had produced this gave us an insight into his way of working. From his work it was clear that cardboard, paint and tape had been mainly used within his placards. We decided to keep with the black and white colour scheme that Green used as it also fitted in with our colour scheme of red, white and black.

We started by digitally playing around with the type to ensure that we had the correct kerning and leading. This was also a useful process as it enabled us to visualise what the placard would look like when handmade. We experienced some problems when resourcing materials for the placard as we wanted black tape however, this wasn’t something that was available to us. We used paint and cardboard that was available to us.

As a group we made a decision to use a stencil to help with the placement of the letters, we felt that because Green’s work used very consistent type in it this was something we could incorporate into our own work. The whole group decided to participate in the creation of this placard as we felt that it would be a good starting point before creating a placard each individually. This was useful to do as we were all able to come up with ideas towards this placard and this highlighted to me further the point of collaboration and how useful it can be.

Using a scalpel we were able to cut the letters out to create the stencil that we were able to masking tape to the bored. Originally we wanted to use black masking tape however this wasn’t available to use to we managed to find some black cardboard which we used to cover the plain cardboard. Then using the white acrylic paint we dabbed it onto the stencil to create this edgy effect as if the letters weren’t perfectly painted onto the board. I thought that this was an interesting take on the work of Stanley Green because one the layout of the type but also the modern style of who the paint was placed onto the bored.


We then reinforced the cardboard using corrugated cardboard to make the placard stronger. This then gave us the idea with all our placard to maybe use corrugated cardboard to reinforced them all. Through doing this gave me the chance to think about how I could develop my own placard.



Protest – Placards Initial Ideas

The next stage of this project was to undertake the graphics brief which is based around placards, compared to the previous brief this one worked to my strengths however, I feel like I’ve learnt a lot from the previous brief and apply to this brief. The brief is asking the group to produce a series of placards with one being made in the style of Stanley Green which is purely typographical, whereas the others in the series are able to include original imagery.

As a team we sat down and thought about the ideas that we could develop since everybody seemed to have a range of ideas. However, we thought it was best to start by coming up with the copywriting that would appear on the placards. through brainstorming and mind mapping we were able to start creating some interesting copywriting that we could potentially use. We then decided to highlight 4 key ones that we could experiment with and explore further. These included;

  1. Let Me Be Wild
  2. You like your freedom, so would they
  3. we can’t speak up so why don’t you
  4. if it was humans it would be abuse

We felt that the use of the pronouns ‘me’ ‘you’ and ‘we’ made the statement stronger and got the audience thinking about the topic. This is a technique we’ve seen used before in both campaigns and other forms of ‘political’ information. This was clear that they would grab the attention therefore this is where the hierarchy would need to be in majority of these statements.


As an initial starting point we each decided to go away and create ideas around what placards could look like, we started off by looking at the placards that would be using both imagery and type. In the initial ideas studio session we talked about using the 3D element that seem to have worked in the oxymoron outcome potentially within the placards. (maybe having things standing out or having cut away into the placard itself to create an image). We spoke about continuing to use imagery that we had used in the oxymoron, chains, bars and claw marks within the placard so this was something that I thought about when creating my initial ideas to feedback to the group.

Below are the initial sketches for different placard designs, using the claw mark I felt that this was very visual and linked to the idea of being wild. It related back to the idea of the animal trying to escape, like its trapped in the placard and is trying to get out. With this there are variations, however, they would all be cut into the material to create that sense of 3D.

With the idea of freedom I thought about using bars within this as I felt that it would be away of showing what freedom isn’t. I started by having a gap in the bars there the words were however, I don’t think this worked as well. However, as the designs developed having the word freedom almost escaping from the bar I think works well to try and highlight this point. For both the ‘we can’t speak up so why don’t you’ and ‘if it was humans it would be called abuse’ I found it difficult to think about these including imagery. I experimented with the idea of a cage and using tape to shut off certain words, as from research this is what they do to some animals when smuggling them. Through doing these sketches it had allowed me to be creative and experiment and think that some of these ideas with further development could work well to create some nice outcomes.

Protest Project – Creating the Artefact

To start creating the artefact, it was my part to make the cardboard box structure. Using recycled cardboard boxes I made 30x30cm square frames, then using hot glue gun glued them together to create the box. As a team we also discussed having a top of the box shaped like a roof, so using cardboard triangles I created the pyramid type structure to go on the top. This would further resonate with the idea of people connecting the box with objects in domestic life. Creating the structure was a very important part of this outcome as it had to be perfect in order for all the elements to come together.

As there were going to be 4 different sections to the box we each thought we’d each take a section to create a background for. I was allocated the house section to create a background for, so I started by thinking about how a living room would look if a tiger was confined inside it. I then took my sketchbook and roughly sketched out some ideas for what could be included in the illustration. This was something that pushed me out of my comfort zone as I am used to working using words not only illustrations. However, I think that I have learnt that the softer illustration style could be used in my further projects.

To create the illustration I used Adobe Illustrator as I felt that this was going to be the best way forward. The illustrations were 38x30cm in order to fit onto the panels inside the box. Using the pen tool I started to draw the design. I was unsure at this point how best to achieve the best overall look when the background was in the box so I decided to do two illustrations one at a larger and one in a box on a smaller scale. To try and work out which would be best suited I experimented using hand draw sketches on A3 paper to see which would look better through the window. We had decided as a group to keep the backgrounds black, white and grey then adding hints of red using red marker. I kept everything in the illustrator black, white and grey the only elements that were red were the claw marks on the sofa. I thought that this would be subtle hit of the colour but still work effectively within the design. I also illustrated the bricks that were on the side and on window in the front, again I used illustrator to create these.

Once we all had all completed our separate elements for the artefact we decided to get together in the studio to put together the final artefact. We started by adding in the different backgrounds to the sections we printed them on A3 before trimming them down to size and sticking them to the cardboard section. Below are images of how the background that I illustrated fitted within the box. The use of window draws your attention and makes you want to look closer into the box and find out more which is what we were trying to achieve.

Next we added the animals into the box some of these were glued to the floor while others were hung from the top, this was based on the different scenes, for example the garden scene they were on the floor but the chain scene the monkey itself was hung with mini paper chains. Using hot glue we were able to secure the window panels and the pyramid roof to the top. This was a particularly intricate part of the process as the artefact was delicate and we didn’t want it to break.

Once the final artefact was complete, it was easier to see that the oxymoron had been visualise in a very different way to others but in a way that could be used in the protest further. To see this in context we each experimented around with placing the image in context, I used Adobe Photoshop to try and create the sense of the artefact being scaled up and being used within a physical protest. I changed the colour of the box to black as this allows the artefact to become more realistic as if this was made on a larger scale it would obviously be made using another material.

Image in Context 

I feel that this brief pushed me out of my comfort zone and I learnt a new skill of trying to convey a message simply through images without using text to support the outcome. After seeing the artefact complete I can visualise this being used on a larger scale to actually protest against the exotic pet trade. The oxymoron of ‘tame beast’ really connects with our topic and I think that using this a basis for the future briefs within this module would give us the freedom to be more creative to grab peoples attention.

Protest Project – Oxymoron Planning

As the next stage in the project we were given the brief of visualising an oxymoron, this was something new to me as I hadn’t heard of an oxymoron before this project. We started by taking the oxymoron ‘tame beast’ as we felt this linked to our topic highly, as people are taking wild animals and taming them to become pets. We listed things that came to mind when thinking about the words separately, then used this to start creating images to express the oxymoron. This was a useful starting point for this brief as it enabled us to think about how creative and experimental we could be. I felt that this brief is pushing me out of my comfort zone as this is something that as a designer I haven’t done before.

As a team we decided to move forward with an illustration that Finn completed as we felt it worked with the oxymoron ‘tame beast’. The image of the monkey in chains inside a box inspired us to think about how we could portray this in the form of an image at scale, artefact or GIF. We felt that it would be interesting to create a artefact as this was something that not many of us had done before. We thought about creating a physical box to represent tame, the idea of being closed in or in captivity. It relates to the topic of  exotic animals being kept as pets within a domesticated environment. The box shape resinates with majority of people as something or an object in domestic life for example a house.


We started off by discussing having just the monkey in chains inside the box from different angles. However, as the discussion developed we start to think more in depth about the outcome adding more animals and more different meanings. In the end we decided that inside the box there will be four different sections, each displaying a different scene around the oxymoron ‘tame beast’. Each section will hold a different background, either a house, cage, chains or a sub-urban garden this shows how wild animals are truing to be tamed to become domesticated animals. The backgrounds will be monochrome to show the dull and wrong natural about animals being kept in these environment’s. The illustrations of the animals will contrast and be bright in colour rather than in monochrome. There will also be layers within the sections to add depth, some of these will have to be looked through in order for the audience to see whats in that section, again encouraging them to engage with the outcome (engaging with the protest).

We thought that the box would be constructed using cardboard as we only had one week to produce it but we still wanted it to be sturdy and not break. Using the thicker cardboard we thought would be best to create the outcome. The backgrounds would be stuck onto the panels inside the box. The illustrated animals would either be hung using thin string or stuck to the bottom of the box.

Through creating an artefact we felt that this would intrigue the audience to look further into the artefact itself, ultimately engaging with the protest. We also had a brief discussion about how this could work if this was to be taken further. The idea behind the artefact is that I could be scaled up to create an installation piece that could be placed in random places to raise awareness and protest about the cause. For example places such as Parliament or even city centres where people would be drawn to new things they aren’t use too.


Protest Project – Design Manifesto

Following our independent research into the various areas of our chosen topic, we met to discuss the research we had all obtain. We then started to look at designing the manifesto for the project, this was something new to me as I hadn’t done anything like this before. Prior to the meeting with the group I looked at manifestos that were already out there to see how they had been designed.

From looking at these manifesto designs it was clear that there was a sense of hierarchy and a path for the eye. On a few of the manifestos above you can see the use of grid system through the body copy layout which I think works well in the sections as it’s spilts up all the text. I don’t feel that the large volume of text works well together at once, its easier to read when spilt up. Not many of the manifestos I found used images or illustrators within them however, I think that they help to express the topic of protest. The use of the larger image in the centre works however you do lose some detailing, while the small illustrations incorporated with the type works well as it’s subtle but effective, this is something I think we could take forward and use within our own design because it will allow us to show a variety of animals that are effected by the horrific pet trade.

I decided to also look at the book 100 Artists’ Manifestos From the Futurists to the Stuckists, selected by Alex Danchev. By looking at these allowed me the chance to think about how we could word our manifesto, I would be able to share this with the group to help with ideas.

We also chose a mantra for the protest we settled with ‘protect not possess’ because it gave a short but clear message about what we are protesting/raising awareness for. Finn started to illustrate logo ideas during our studio time, where he came up with a range of ideas before showing us. As a group it was decided on the logo/Mantra design, we also thought about developing the mantra further digitally.

Using the sketch I took it into illustrator, we had decided to use the typeface “Zeitung” as we thought that it was bold and striking. However, when digitalised we talked about the fact that it looked too manufactured and lost it’s personality. In order to enhance this I thought about adding a brush stoke to the design, in the hope that it would give some personality back (like the original sketch). I experimented with a variety of different brush strokes as a group we felt the second down on the right was best as it had grunge and personality while still getting the message across. Lizzie also experimented with making the mantra/logo digital so the group discussed which they felt was best. In the end it was decided that Lizzie’s design would be used further.

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Mantra Design Development

The next stage in the process was designing the mantra itself, as a group with 3 graphic communications students we decided that we would each come up with a design and them incorporate the best elements of each into a final outcome. We felt that this was going to be the best way to complete this outcome.

I started by sketching various layouts that I could create, as the illustration students had illustrated the word manifesto I was aware that this was going to be the main focus within the poster. Taking inspiration from the research I had conducted into manifesto designs I knew it was going to need to be bold and striking, to capture the attention of the audience. As a group from our research we realised the pain that animals went through when people smuggle them and sell them as pets, this influenced our choice of colour scheme. The red symbolises the danger that this trade is but also the anger it causes people when they hear about the topic, with the black and white complimenting  the red making it standout.

Initial Sketches

Using the illustrations that Cameron and Finn had completed and scanned I developed them in photoshop before adding them as PNG files into an InDesign document. As the illustrations had been done in white pen or pencil, I kept the background black with white text to be consistent with their work.  I used a 4 column grid system for the initial designs, I was able to take some inspiration from the designs I had seen before, I particularly liked the way the characters where spilt across the page, this was something I incorporated into my own design. The first one uses all the text we initially wrote down in two columns. Whereas the second one uses key sentences that best express the outcomes that we are hoping to achieve.

After communicating with the group on these initial ideas, there some aspects that they liked and others which they felt didn’t work as well. The constructive feedback I received was that the slogan in the bottom left hand corner felt like it wasn’t connected to the rest of the poster and that the word ‘manifesto’ was difficult to read. To try making the text more legible I changed the placement of the ‘s’ to follow the ‘F,E’ make the path of the eye clearer. I also added the white boarder to link all the components of the layout together, including the mantra which is now placed at the top right corner.

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Further Development

The next stage is to move forward and incorporate Lizzie, Matt and mine own designs together to create a strong visual manifesto. After looking at all the three design ideas from the group we felt we’d take the best elements from each of the designs forward to create a final outcome. We felt that the red type off of Lizzie’s poster was powerful and was able to draw people in alongside the mantra logo. We all really liked how Matt had spilt up the text making some phrase larger and bolder to raise attention,along with clear path of the eye. Using these elements from their work and the layout and white line boarder from my own, we created this final outcome for the manifesto.

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Final Design

I think that overall by taking the strongest elements from each individuals work we were able to create an outcome that held all the ideas we had collated. I feel that this worked well for the team because everybody’s ideas were considered before decisions were made. I found working collaboratively in this way, in terms of designing, very good as everybody was willing to accept feedback and everyone felt that their ideas had be considered and included.

Design as Activism – Developing on Feedback

As a group we presented our campaign and outcomes to the rest of the course where we gained both peer and tutor feedback on our work. Some feedback stated:

  • the infographic had good balance
  • logo design works well with the plastic bottles becoming part of the type
  • stop motion and gif work well

It was clear from some of the feedback that there were some elements that had been lost due to communication errors over our break. For example putting the outcomes into context, displaying them in the form of social media. For example, I could have displayed my gif as if it was part of an instagram feed or facebook post.

Furthermore, one piece of feedback we received was that the colour scheme we had chosen reminded people of IKEA due to the strong blue and yellow. It was felt that the yellow colour should appear more toxic as the thinking behind it was to highlight the synthetic colours that plastic is bringing to nature, which the blue was to represent the natural beauty of the world. As a team we felt that it was best to change the colours to a lighter blue and a more ‘toxic’ yellow green shade. This enabled us to then stop being associated with larger brands and gave us our own identity.

Logo Development – Change of colour scheme

Feedback also said that we many be could have benefitted further from using more seafood in our imagery as our research said majority of micro plastic get into our food chain via the ocean, this is something that we did consider but just felt that wasn’t able to be achieve. However, during our presentation we mentioned the fact that we weren’t able to get the shots of the food around the face, playing on that idea of being disgusting due to not being able to book studio space. According to verbal feedback this could have been stronger more powerful imagery and in future we should consider using other spaces to take the imagery.

For my individual outcome the feedback was mainly positive however, there were a few things that I could develop in order to make it better. Changing the colour of the outer glow of the type on the screen to be the softer blue rather than the white would link back further to the campaign logo and colour scheme. This was something I was able to develop after the feedback as well. I think that this feedback has helped make the outcome stronger which helps capture the audience’s attention further. As I was making adjustments to the GIF I also changed the logo to the newly developed one in order to show how this would work now on the GIF.

Developed GIF Outcome 
Context PCA
Gif in context



Protest Project – Introduction

We were introduced to our new project which we will be working on for the next 4 weeks, still part of our field module (collaborate) but this time collaborating with students from the Illustration course. The project is entitled protest looking at how designers and illustrators have the power to create change within the world and working in our collaborative groups to create a live protest.

During the keynote lecture we were given a series of examples of protests such as the pro-suffrage, anti war and smaller protest like Clare road Cardiff.  This work highlight to me that protest come in different forms some can be an act, some can be very active others can be more peaceful. This keynote lecture gave me more of an insight into protests and how different they can be.

After a group building task getting to know our teams we were introduced to our first task of creating a manifesto for our protest. Before thinking about the content of our protest we spoke about our strengths as a group and thought about how we could utilises these in our project. We started by brainstorming different ideas that we could protest about, this was an interesting activity because it enables us as a team to see which ideas were strongest and see which ones we felt most passionately about while still creating something innovative. Our ideas ranged from deforestation to companies exploiting their customers, as these were things that various members seemed passionate about. In the end we felt that looking at the exotic pet trade was going to be an interesting topic as it’s something that people have heard about but might not necessarily known much about, with the aim to raise awareness around the issue.

Initial Ideas Notes


We thought that it would be best to go away and start researching different areas that concerned the topic, in order to feedback to the group during our next day together. This would also better inform our ideas before we designed our manifesto, and other aspects of the project. We split the research up equally so each person had a different area, I had to look at general statistics and facts around the pet trade.

I started my research by using a conducting a google search, from this search I found that there was an overwhelming amount of facts surrounding this horrific trade. According to PETA these traders encourage the public to view animals as an impulse purchase rather than thinking about them as beings who deserve love and respects. The transportation for the animals is deadly as many die due to the conditions which they are forced into.

Parrots might have their beaks and feet taped and be stuffed into plastic tubes that can easily be hidden in luggage, and stolen bird and reptile eggs are concealed in special vests so that couriers can bypass X-ray machines at airports.3 Baby turtles have been taped so that they are trapped inside their shells and shoved by the dozen into tube socks, and infant pythons have been shipped in CD cases.’

Other research highlighted that the WWF estimates there there are 5,000 tigers being kept in backyards in the UK, and only 3,000 left in the wild. Animals kept in captivity are less likely to breed which could lead to a species extinction. According the one green planet, 28,300 freshwater turtles are traded each day and over 80% are in danger of extinction due to this trade.

A BBC article from 2016 stated that within the UK more than 100 councils have issued licences to people who keep undomesticated animals at home. Shockingly 15 wolves are registered at UK addresses, 145 ostriches, 13 tigers, 9 pumas and 8 leopards are being kept privately. However, these figures only include the animals that have legally been licensed and there could be hundreds more being kept without a licence.

From completing this initial research I have gained more knowledge surrounding the topic and I feel that I am now more equipped to protest and raise awareness.  Personally I found that through this research I have become more educated around the subject and feel that this is something that more people need to be made aware off.

PETA (2018) Available at: (Accessed: 15th January 2019)
PETA (2019) Available at: 15th January 2019)
Good. K (2016) 10 shocking facts about how illegal wildlife trade drive species extinction Available at: (Accessed: 15th January 2019)
BBC News (2016) Wild animals at UK homes include lions zebras and crocodiles. Available at: (Accessed 15th January 2019)